Main article: shamanism .
The shaman (or shaman) is represented as being the intermediary or intercessor between man and nature spirits. Il a une perception du monde que l'on qualifie aujourd'hui d' holistique dans son sens commun ou animiste (voir également les théories Gaïa ). It has a perception of the world that are now called for holistic in its common or animistic (see also the Gaia theory ). Le chamane est à la fois . The shaman is both "wise, therapist, counselor, healer and seer." Il "est" l'initié ou le dépositaire de la culture, des croyances , des pratiques du chamanisme , et d'une forme potentielle de "secret culturel". It "is" the insider or the custodian of culture, beliefs , practices of shamanism , and a potential form of "cultural secrecy". On le trouve principalement dans les sociétés traditionnelles ancestrales où il arbore des parures et pratique dans le secret. It is mainly found in traditional societies where traditional sports ornaments and practice in secret.
A Shaman is someone who can connect with the akashic field, this allows him to do amazing things, like taking the skills and techniques of assimilating a spirit with him. They can ask for advice, heal the sick and gather the akashic templates of the dead in this world. Moreover, by contacting the dead, they can also speak with great historical figures.
This term comes from the Tungus (language of Siberia ) shaman (someone who has knowledge). Confusion with Sanskrit or Shramana samana (which designated the ascetics ) left thinking that the two terms have a common source, but it is not the case .
The word shaman, shaman, saman appear for the first time in 1672 in the autobiography of Avvakoum Petrovich , Russian leader of the conservative clergy, exiled to Siberia in 1661 by Tsar Alexis I.
"He forced a native to the Saman [Shaman], that is to say the soothsayer: shipping Will she be happy, and will they return victorious? This clown magician, near my hut, brought the evening a live ram and began to practice his magic on him. After tossing and turning, he twisted his neck and threw her head off. Then he began to jump and dance and call demons. Finally , with loud cries, he threw himself down, and the foam came out of his mouth. Demons pressed him, and he asked them: 'The expedition will succeed she?' And the demons said, "With great victory ... ' (...) I had pity on them: my soul saw that they would be massacred ... His company has been murdered ... " (Avvakum Petrovich, The life of the archpriest Avvakum written by himself, 1672, trans. Russian Pierre Pascal, Gallimard, 1938).
Function in Traitional SocietiesEdit
The role is performed by men or women with a variety of functions in traditional societies, including the direction of the tribe , the development and direction of the rituals , healing knowledge of plants or a direct psychic action, the education, counseling, and these roles are often combined. Abilities of shamans are supposed to, among other things, an extra sensory perception , psychic powers vary according to the traditions and individuality of the shaman ( telepathy , prescience , vision at great distances, divination ...) as a psychopomp , it connects the world of the dead, the beyond , to the living through a series of personal transformations, sometimes by the use of substances psychotropic , guided by an older shaman, according to a relationship Master - Disciple . The shaman has gained some popularity for an audience of modern societies in search of mystical experiences or after reading the books of Carlos Castaneda . Thus, offers of shamanic initiation based psychotropic substance such as ayahuasca and iboga , for example, have made the headlines, causing debate and controversy over their potential harmfulness and the possible difficulties could meet European citizens who engage in such practices blindly. Not everyone can communicate with spirits, so shamans have been revered since ancient times and there are still scattered all over the world. Shamans are located in China and Guinea tribes in Polynesia. In Japan, those who summon the spirits are called Itako.
Shaman and lore masters are often mistaken for each other. However though the two disciplines have similarities they also have vast differences.